PCOSCO: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder that affects hormones. It can cause irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth, acne, and infertility. Treatment of PCOS depends on whether women want to become pregnant. People with PCOS may more likely to develop certain health conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
In the United States, more than 500,000 women of reproductive age have PCOS, one of the most common endocrine disorders. This disorder is characterised by cysts, which are enlarged, fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause infertility and other problems in the woman’s reproductive system.
This disorder often coexists with other disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. These comorbid conditions seem to help make PCOS more common and more severe.
This syndrome often mimics other health conditions and may be difficult to diagnose. To determine if you have it, your doctor may order a test to perform a physical examination and check for hormonal abnormalities. If people have PCOS, doctors may recommend treatments to relieve symptoms.
How old does PCOSCO start?
Women and people with AFAB may become PCOS at any time after puberty. Most people are diagnosed in their 20s or 30s and trying to conceive. You may have a higher chance of getting PCOS if you have obesity or if others in your biological family have PCOS.
Is PCOS a common disease?
PCOSCO is a very common disorder. Up to 15% of women and older people who are reproductive have PCOS.
What are the signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
The most common signs and symptoms of PCOS are:
- Irregular periods: Abnormal periods timing include not having a period at all. They may also bleed profusely during periods.
- Abnormal hair growth: The face may have dark hair, and the arms, chest, and abdomen may have dark hair (hypertrichosis). This occurs in 70% of people with PCOS.
- Acne: PCOS may cause acne, especially on the back, chest and face. This acne can last beyond the teens and can be difficult to treat.
- Obesity: Between 40% and 80% of people with PCOS are obese, making it difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
- Skin darkness: Black spots may appear on the neck, under the arms, at the base of the feet, or under the chest. This is what is called acanthosis nigricans.
- Cysts: Ultrasonography shows that many people with PCOS have larger ovaries or more follicles.
- Skin tag: Skin tags are small flaps of extra skin. It is often seen under the armpits and on the neck.
- Hair gets thinner: People with PCOS may have thinning hair and baldness.
- Infertility: PCOS is the most common cause of infertility. Not ovulating daily and frequently can result in not being able to pregnant.
What is the significance of PCOSCO?
The cause of PCOS is unknown. However, research has revealed several characteristics common to women with PCOSCO.
- Insulin resistance is common among women with PCOS. This indicates that the body is not able to take enough insulin.
- The insulin level in the body increases, probably leading to high levels of androgens. Obesity can also increase insulin levels, making PCOSCO symptoms worse.
- Insulin is the pancreatic hormone that controls blood sugar levels. It helps glucose pass from the bloodstream to the cells. Eventually, it is converted into energy.
- Insulin resistance is characterised by the inability of body tissues to respond to insulin. As a result, the body produces more insulin to compensate for the high blood glucose levels.
- High insulin levels can develop the ovaries to produce too much testosterone, interfere with the growth of the follicles (the sacs in the ovaries in which eggs develop), and prevent regular ovulation. Weight gain, caused by insulin resistance, can worsen PCOS symptoms by encouraging the body to secrete more insulin.
- Many women with PCOSCO have hormonal abnormalities.
- Women only have a small amount of testosterone, a male hormone.
- Also, luteinising hormone (LH) levels are expected to increase. It can stimulate ovulation, but if consumed in large amounts, it can harm a woman’s reproductive function.
- A low level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the blood. Protein in the blood binds testosterone and decreases its effect.
- Prolactin levels are elevated. During pregnancy, prolactin stimulates the milk glands to produce milk.
- The cause of these hormone levels is unknown. It has been suggested that problems may have started in the ovaries, in other glands that secrete these hormones, or in areas of the brain that control the synthesis of these hormones.
- Insulin resistance may also contribute to this change.
PCOSCO can be inherited. It is more likely if you have PCOS people in your family, such as your mother, sister, or aunt.
Different types of PCOSCO
There are different types of PCOSCO, each with a comorbid disorder. Common comorbid disorders include
- Insulin resistance
- Hyperandrogenemia (high levels of male hormones)
- Anovulatory cycles (absence of ovulation)
- Obese or overweight
- Type II diabetes
- Heart disease
- Cognitive dysfunction
- Psychologic disorders such as anxiety and depression
Health Risks Associated with PCOS
PCOS makes it easier for women to develop certain health problems, but not all PCOS women. Therefore, having a doctor who knows how to help women with PCOSCO check their health regularly is very important.
People should schedule an appointment with their doctor once every six months. Check your health once every six months to make sure nothing is wrong.
Here are some of the long-term health risks associated with the disease.
It is one of the most common. This may be because people who are overweight are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and long-term disorders such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer.
Type 2 diabetes:
Diabetes mellitus is a common comorbid condition. This is because diabetes makes women more likely to have problems during pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes or high blood pressure. It can also cause insulin resistance, one of the main causes of PCOS.
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy:
About half of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome also have this disorder. Gestational diabetes usually heals after the baby is born, but it sometimes causes type II diabetes in the future.
Infertility or low birth rate:
It is one of the most general reasons women can’t have children, but it can treat.
In women with PCOS, hormonal balance is upset, making it difficult for eggs to form and leave the ovaries (ovulation). If ovulation does not occur, women cannot become pregnant.
PCOS and Endometrial Cancer COS increase the risk of endometrial cancer in women before menopause by 6%. Being overweight, having too much insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinemia), and having diabetes are the most prevalent causes of endometrial cancer in women with PCOS.
PCOSCO is also associated with aberrant hormone levels, such as excess oestrogen, testosterone, or insufficient progesterone. This hormonal imbalance may lead to a variety of endometrial cancers.
OSA (obstructive sleep apnea:
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and potentially deadly sleep disease in which you stop breathing while sleeping. When you have OSA, your airway often becomes closed as you sleep. This reduces the amount of air that reaches your lungs.
According to one research, women with PCOS are 5-10 times more likely than those without PCOS to develop OSA.
“Electronic commerce” refers to selling products and services through the Internet. According to research, people with PCOS struggle to sleep or feel exhausted throughout the day.
These are OSA symptoms.
- Stress or depression: Polycystic ovaries may cause a woman to gain weight, causing her stress hormones to surge.
- Women with PCOS are also more prone to experience anxiety than those without PCOS.
- This is likely because PCOSCO may make it difficult to conceive children and manage hormones.
- Women are also prone to mood fluctuations, which may make them nervous or depressed.
PCOS is a hormonal imbalance that affects women of reproductive age. It is a disorder with how your hormones work and may lead to problems including high blood pressure, obesity, and infertility. There are several steps you may take to keep your sickness under control.
These are five precautionary measures:
- Have a well-balanced diet. Consume sufficient fruits and vegetables, healthy grains, and lean protein sources.
- Engage in regular physical activity. Exercise not only helps with weight reduction and general health but also helps balance hormone levels and lowers the chance of having PCOS.
- Minimise the amount of stress in your life. Stress may induce hormonal imbalances, which might result in PCOS symptoms. Spend some time each day to de-stress and relax; this will aid in regulating your body’s natural cycle.
- Get treatment for any underlying medical conditions that may exacerbate PCOS symptoms. Thyroid problems and diabetes may disrupt hormone balance, leading to the polycystic ovarian syndrome.
- Maintain a monthly cycle notebook for at least two years to track any changes in your symptoms and progress in avoiding the condition.
When should you see a doctor?
- See your doctor if you have missing periods and are not pregnant.
- You have PCOS symptoms such as facial and body hair growth.
- You’ve been trying to become pregnant for more than a year without luck.
- Diabetes symptoms include excessive thirst or hunger, impaired eyesight, and unexplained weight loss.
- If your periods are irregular or absent and you’re trying to conceive, don’t wait another year to see a specialist (27).
- Also, if you don’t want to get pregnant, irregular or absent periods aren’t enough to prevent pregnancy.
- Even under these conditions, it is possible to become pregnant. Even if you have PCOS, it is best to use contraception in this situation.
The ideal treatment strategy for polycystic ovarian syndrome can vary based on the individual’s symptoms and medical history. Nonetheless, some popular PCOS treatment methods include:
Pills for birth control
The pill may aid in regulating menstrual cycles and limit the number of eggs produced by the ovaries. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) comprising ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone are most typically used to treat PCOS. These medications prevent ovulation, which may reduce the chance of developing ovarian cancer. Birth control pill side effects might include mood swings, weight gain, and missed periods.
Weight reduction is an important element of treating PCOS since it helps improve insulin sensitivity and lessen the amount of acne and other skin issues often connected with this disorder. In certain circumstances, gastric bypass surgery or other weight-loss procedures may be required. Reduced sugar intake, less processed foods, and increased fibre consumption may also assist in reducing PCOS symptoms.
Clomiphene (Clomid) is a fertility medication that may assist women with PCOS in becoming pregnant. Remembering that clomiphene raises the risks of twins and other multiple births while considering family planning (26) is crucial.
Hair removal products
A few treatments may help remove unwanted hair or prevent it from developing. Eflornithine cream (Vaniqa) is a prescription medication that suppresses hair growth. Laser hair removal or electrolysis may remove unwanted hair on your face and body.
If alternative therapies fail to increase fertility, surgery may be a possibility. Ovarian drilling is a technique that uses a laser or a thin heated needle to produce microscopic holes in the ovary to reestablish regular ovulation.
Metformin is a kind of diabetic medicine that has been demonstrated to be beneficial in lowering testosterone levels in women with PCOS. It may also decrease insulin resistance, improving blood sugar management and lowering the chance of developing diabetes later in life in persons with PCOS. Metformin has just a few negative effects, commonly including nausea, diarrhoea, and lactic acidosis.
Food To Be Eaten
The things you should consume to treat PCOSCO symptoms are listed below.
Green leafy vegetables
Green leafy vegetables are an excellent addition to any diet. Since they are nutrient-dense as well as low in calories, they are ideal for nutrition and weight reduction. Green green vegetables, such as kale or spinach, have significant levels of Vitamin B and are useful to PCOS sufferers. Surprisingly, a lack of vitamin B has been discovered in more than 80% of PCOS patients.
Consume a low-glycemic-index diet (GI)
Low-GI meals are digested more slowly by the body. Therefore they do not boost insulin levels as much or as rapidly as other foods, such as carbs. A low GI diet includes whole wheat, beans, nuts, seeds, fruits, starchy vegetables, and other uncooked, low-carbohydrate foods.
The good fats
PCOSCO is not always caused by fat. Therefore, fats are only sometimes unhealthy for you.
Several good fats, like avocados and fatty fish, may be included in your diet and are necessary for eating with PCOS.
Healthy fats include fatty acids, which are essential for the maintenance of cell membranes. They are also essential for maintaining a healthy hormone balance and regulating weight.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is PCOS associated with an increased risk of other diseases?
Some evidence suggests that PCOS increases the risk of developing other diseases. High blood pressure and insulin resistance are more common in people with PCOS, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and other long-term conditions. They are also more likely to develop ovarian cancer. However, there is insufficient evidence to say whether PCOS is directly responsible for these diseases or merely associated with them.
What is the distinction between PCOS and polycystic ovarian syndrome?
In contrast to PCO, PCOS is a metabolic disorder characterised by unbalanced hormone levels released by the ovaries.
Is PCOS classified into stages?
The four functional types of PCOS are insulin-resistant PCOS, post-pill PCOS (temporary), inflammatory PCOS, and adrenal PCOS.
Is PCOS making you tired?
Yes, PCOS can cause fatigue. Indeed, many PCOS women report feeling chronically exhausted. This isn’t very easy, but it concerns how PCOS affects your hormones and metabolism.
Is PCOS inherited?
Researchers continue to discover more about the causes of PCOS. Some data suggest that PCOS has a genetic or inherited component. This implies that if one of your biological parents has PCOS, you are also more likely to have it.
What hormones affects PCOS?
PCOS is characterised by a hormonal imbalance that interrupts the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and pregnancy. These hormones are like an elaborate web, and their balance is critical to the proper functioning of your reproductive system. The following hormones are present in PCOS:
- Androgens (such testosterone and androstenedione)
- Luteinising hormone (LH)
- FSH is a follicle-stimulating hormone.
What is the difference between PCOS and endometriosis?
While PCOSCO and endometriosis are distinct illnesses, both may result in ovarian cysts and infertility. Endometriosis is a disorder in which the lining of your uterus (endometrium) develops in sites other than your uterus, such as your ovaries, vagina, or fallopian tubes. It usually results in pelvic discomfort or severe menstrual cramps. Due to an overabundance of male hormones, people with PCOS experience irregular periods, unexpected ovulation, and other physical side effects.
PCOSCO Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common endocrine system condition that may lead to a variety of major health issues. While there is no cure for PCOS, early diagnosis and treatment may help control symptoms and reduce the chance of developing additional health issues. If you suspect you have PCOS, you must check with your doctor.